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Relevance of Climate Change in Public Health

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(@ashishjoshi)
Posts: 90
Reputable Member Admin
Topic starter
 

Let's share your thoughts on the climate change and public health response.

 
Posted : August 16, 2021 4:10 pm
(@chandrima-chatterjee)
Posts: 17
Eminent Member
 

The relevance of Climate Change in Public Health

Global climate change will lead to adverse weather conditions like storms, cyclones, floods, landslides, heat, drought, etc. The capacity of communities and local governments to respond to these catastrophes is frequently exceeded, necessitating outside aid. Such imbalances between requirements and resources frequently result in disaster declarations. Climate-related (hydrologic and meteorologic) dangers, in particular, have afflicted a rising number of people and resulted in significant economic losses. Local response capabilities frequently exceed public health needs as a result of disasters. The worldwide response to emergencies and catastrophes has shifted from ad hoc aid and reconstruction toward a more structured and comprehensive risk management procedure. Catastrophe risk management includes both pre-impact disaster risk reduction—prevention, readiness, and mitigation—as well as post-impact crisis management operations such as "reaction and recovery." “Activities and measures adopted in advance to ensure the effective reaction to the impact of hazards” is how preparedness is defined. Mitigation is defined as "structural and nonstructural actions used to reduce the negative consequences of natural disasters, environmental deterioration, and technological dangers." [1]

Injuries and deaths caused by severe weather and heatwaves; infectious diseases caused by changes in vector biology, water, and food contamination; allergic symptoms caused by increased allergen production; respiratory and cardiovascular diseases caused by worsening air pollution; and nutritional shortages caused by changes in food production are all major concerns. Mental health implications, population dislocation, and civil conflict are indirect issues for which data to support estimates are scarce, and uncertainties are high. Scientists, doctors, and public health professionals have urged attention to climate change on both practical and ethical grounds. Several well-established principles support a robust, proactive public health strategy for climate change. [2]

References

  1. Keim ME. Building human resilience: the role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. American journal of preventive medicine. 2008 Nov 1;35(5):508-16.

//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379708006879?casa_token=8CQfr5GB0PgAAAAA:isqxWtganTZjt--yhxiCrwVHC1dB4Wpwb4U_cQfiN1zHlY0vbRpVj1rwb6yuwx72XS0ohc-ffew

  1. Frumkin H, Hess J, Luber G, Malilay J, McGeehin M. Climate change: the public health response. American journal of public health. 2008 Mar;98(3):435-45.

//ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdfplus/10.2105/AJPH.2007.119362

 
Posted : August 16, 2021 4:47 pm
(@shambhavi)
Posts: 16
Eminent Member
 

Various disease specific, climate induced events could trigger an international public health emergency. Climate change thus induces “a potential for disease” by increasing the conditions suitable for disease transmission.[6] According to the Health and Climate Report, death, injury, illness, worsening underlying medical conditions and adverse effects on mental health are major public health threats arising as a result of abrupt climate change on global levels and at alarming rates.[7]

Steps that address climate change frequently yield other health benefits, both direct and indirect, providing an important framework for public health action on climate change For example, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from power plants can also improve regional air quality, with direct benefits for respiratory and cardiovascular health.[3] Reducing vehicle miles traveled by encouraging walking, bicycling, and transit use can not only reduce motor vehicle contributions to climate change, it can also promote physical activity, an important solution to the obesity epidemic.[4][5] Another focus point depicts that as global temperatures warm, hot days are expected to become more common and severe. Heat stroke and exhaustion are already some of the most directly heat-related illnesses, but heat stress could also cause or exacerbate cardiovascular and kidney problems. According to a 2016 study by researchers at the Public Health Agency of Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory, warmer winters have been found to increase the number of ticks that survive and lengthen their active season. [7]

For priority actions to balance and relate Climate Change and Public Health better, professionals will need to confront several practical realities, like health disparities and regional variation. Public health action on climate change would need to include vulnerability assessments, identification of the most vulnerable populations, and a focus on eliminating health disparities.[1] Although, specific climate change outcomes are uncertain, especially indirect and derivative outcomes such as population displacement, the notion that steps to protect the public from the threats of climate change cannot await full scientific certainty, and the use of “margins of safety” to ensure safer conditions, are consistent with prevailing public health practice.[2] The emergence of new infectious diseases, the reemergence of old ones and the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes and hurricanes should compel health professionals, researchers, scientists and stakeholders to study, anticipate, and prepare for such eventualities. Public health preparedness for the predicted effects of climate change is a consistent requirement with this approach.[1]

 

REFERENCES:

  1. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2253589/
  2. Raffensberger C, Tickner J, eds. Protecting Public Health and the Environment: Implementing the Precautionary Principle. Washington, DC: Island Press; 1999
  3. Climate change. Hidden health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. Cifuentes L, Borja-Aburto VH, Gouveia N, Thurston G, Davis DL Science. 2001 Aug 17; 293(5533):1257-9.
  4. Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. Frank LD, Andresen MA, Schmid TL Am J Prev Med. 2004 Aug; 27(2):87-96.
  5. Walking to public transit: steps to help meet physical activity recommendations. Besser LM, Dannenberg AL Am J Prev Med. 2005 Nov; 29(4):273-80.
  6. //www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m797
  7. //yaleclimateconnections.org/2019/08/how-climate-change-threatens-public-health/
 
Posted : August 16, 2021 8:02 pm
(@rahulshrivastava)
Posts: 16
Active Member
 

COVID-19 is known to impact particularly those with underlying health conditions causing severe respiratory disease, and climate change affect air quality, drinking water, food supply and shelter - all factors that are associated with health. Although there are few published articles related to the current pandemic and climate change that do not immediately appear similar until closer inspection report the shared factors. Both crises are attributed to substantial unnecessary loss of life.

According to one of the reports shared ( //www.news-medical.net/health/Climate-Change-and-COVID-19.aspx) both the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change are known to impact certain demographic groups more so than others. Research has revealed that the vulnerable and disadvantaged pay a greater price in both scenarios, with people in poverty suffering the impacts of climate change and the pandemic more so than the rich. Unfortunately, there have long been disparities between the poor and rich in terms of health care and exposure to factors that poorly affect health. The pandemic and climate change highlight these disparities. Finally, both crises have pushed regional healthcare systems around the world to the limit. Climate change and COVID-19 have resulted in large numbers of people being hospitalized, forcing countries to reassess how they manage their healthcare systems.

World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the link between changing environmental conditions and epidemic diseases since earlier pandemics in history. Factors such as temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide, and cloud cover are evolving due to climate change which has a direct impact on the growth of plants and trees. Therefore, climate change is affecting natural habitats and ecosystems via altering environmental factors. Hence, this link may be considered to escalate up to policy-makers to consider the impact of climate change and make region-specific strategies to prevent further environmental damage and reverse, where the damage that has already occurred.

 
Posted : August 16, 2021 9:37 pm
(@sudar-jyothi-g)
Posts: 6
Member
 

*Climate change is a public-health issue. It has been linked to chronic conditions, such as kidney disease, depression and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and can shove the body's response to existing environmental assaults into overdrive

*The health effects of these disruptions include increased respiratory and cardiovascular disease, injuries and premature deaths related to extreme weather events, changes in the prevalence and geographical distribution of food- and water-borne illnesses and other infectious diseases, and threats to mental health.

Reference:https//:www.cdc.gov

 
Posted : August 17, 2021 9:57 am
(@animeshl)
Posts: 9
Active Member
 

Although global warming may bring some localized benefits, such as fewer winter deaths in temperate climates and increased food production in certain areas, the overall health effects of a changing climate are overwhelmingly negative. Climate change affects many of the social and environmental determinants of health – clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and secure shelter.

1) Extreme high air temperatures contribute directly to deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease, particularly among elderly people. In the heat wave of summer 2003 in Europe for example, more than 70 000 excess deaths were recorded.

High temperatures also raise the levels of ozone and other pollutants in the air that exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory disease.

Pollen and other aeroallergen levels are also higher in extreme heat. These can trigger asthma, which affects around 300 million people. Ongoing temperature increases are expected to aggravate this burden.

2) Natural Disasters and variable rainfall patterns - Globally, the number of reported weather-related natural disasters has more than tripled since the 1960s. Every year, these disasters result in over 60 000 deaths, mainly in developing countries.

Rising sea levels and increasingly extreme weather events will destroy homes, medical facilities and other essential services. More than half of the world's population lives within 60 km of the sea. People may be forced to move, which in turn heightens the risk of a range of health effects, from mental disorders to communicable diseases.

Increasingly variable rainfall patterns are likely to affect the supply of fresh water. A lack of safe water can compromise hygiene and increase the risk of diarrheal disease, which kills over 500 000 children aged under 5 years, every year. In extreme cases, water scarcity leads to drought and famine. By the late 21st century, climate change is likely to increase the frequency and intensity of drought at regional and global scale.

Floods and extreme precipitation are also increasing in frequency and intensity. Floods contaminate freshwater supplies, heighten the risk of water-borne diseases, and create breeding grounds for disease-carrying insects such as mosquitoes. They also cause drownings and physical injuries, damage homes and disrupt the supply of medical and health services.

3) Climatic conditions strongly affect water-borne diseases and diseases transmitted through insects, snails or other cold-blooded animals.

Changes in climate are likely to lengthen the transmission seasons of important vector-borne diseases and to alter their geographic range. For example, climate change is projected to widen significantly the area of China where the snail-borne disease schistosomiasis occurs.

Malaria is strongly influenced by climate. Transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes, malaria kills over 400 000 people every year – mainly children under 5 years old in certain African countries. The Aedes mosquito vector of dengue is also highly sensitive to climate conditions, and studies suggest that climate change is likely to continue to increase exposure to dengue.

WHO RESPONSE - cleaner energy systems, and promoting the safe use of public transportation and active movement – such as cycling or walking as alternatives to using private vehicles – could reduce carbon emissions, and cut the burden of household air pollution, which causes some 4.3 million deaths per year, and ambient air pollution, which causes about 3 million deaths every year.

In 2015, the WHO Executive Board endorsed a new work plan on climate change and health. This includes:

  • Partnerships: to coordinate with partner agencies within the UN system, and ensure that health is properly represented in the climate change agenda.
  • Awareness raising: to provide and disseminate information on the threats that climate change presents to human health, and opportunities to promote health while cutting carbon emissions.
  • Science and evidence: to coordinate reviews of the scientific evidence on the links between climate change and health, and develop a global research agenda.
  • Support for implementation of the public health response to climate change: to assist countries in building capacity to reduce health vulnerability to climate change, and promote health while reducing carbon emissions.

SOURCE : //www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health

 
Posted : August 17, 2021 1:20 pm
(@revathy-j)
Posts: 8
Member
 

Climate change affects human health in a variety of ways. Extreme changes in the weather and environment can increase existing health problems, as well as creating new ones.

Extremes in weather and temperature, increased pollution and environmental toxins, and changes in food security can all cause physical and mental health problems.

Climate change is affecting some of the essential factors that influence human health, including:

  • safety of shelter
  • air quality
  • quality, safety, and supply of drinking water
  • food availability
  • nutrition levels in food

As climate change progresses, researchers expect an increase in related health issues.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), researchers predict that certain effects of climate change will contribute to an increase of about 250,000 deaths per yearTrusted Source between 2030 and 2050 from conditions such as:

Climate change can also contribute to migration, as factors such as drought and plummeting fish stocks can lead rural populations to move into urban centers.

Living in urban areas can increase the risk of disease due to overcrowding and higher temperatures.

mental health:

Extreme weather and natural disasters can be traumatic and stressful for the people whom they affect.

People may undergo displacement, injury, the loss of their home and possessions, or the loss of loved ones.

Extreme heat may also have a more significant effect on people with mental health conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), suicide rates increaseTrusted Source with higher temperatures.

The CDC suggest that climate change and higher temperatures have a negative effect on depression and other mental health conditions.

Extreme temperatures can also change how certain medications, such as schizophreniatreatments, work in the body. In addition, they may affect people’s ability to regulate their body temperature correctly.

ResearchersTrusted Source have found that natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina, have negative mental health effects on those involved, including post-traumatic stress disorder and high levels of anxiety. Floods, heat waves, and wildfires may also create these issues.

Concerns about the effects of climate change may also be a source of increased anxiety or despair for some people.

Reference:

//www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/climate-change-and-health#who-is-at-risk

 
Posted : August 17, 2021 3:01 pm
(@isha09)
Posts: 30
Eminent Member
 

Global climate change, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variations. These changes are expected to have severe impacts on human health. Extreme high air temperatures contribute in rising levels of ozone and other pollutants in the air that exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory disease. This directly contributes to deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease, particularly among elderly people. Also, pollens and other aeroallergen levels are also higher in extreme heat. that can trigger asthma.

The number of reported weather-related natural disasters such as floods, droughts, extreme rainfall etc., has more than tripled contributed to rising sea levels and increasingly extreme weather events that can affect people's lives, medical facilities and other essential services. People may suffer from mental disorders to communicable diseases. Moreover, the prevalence of malnutrition, undernutrition and vector borne diseases will increase. Not only the possible health impacts but economic growth and health progress will also get hampered. Children and other vulnerable population will be at a greater risk of being exposed to damaging conditions.

The policies related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, cleaner energy systems, promoting use of public transportation, cycling or walking as alternatives to using private vehicles – could reduce carbon emissions, and cut the burden of household air pollution. This, in turn, can produce major health benefits. Further, raising awareness on the threats that climate change presents to human health, and opportunities to promote health while cutting carbon emissions. Coordination among the stakeholders responsible for global policy-making and global research agenda. Lastly, support for implementing public health response to climate change to assist countries in building capacity to reduce health vulnerability to climate change, and promote health while cutting down carbon emissions.

References

//www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health

//www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effects/default.htm

 
Posted : August 18, 2021 12:58 am
(@b-shivani)
Posts: 16
Active Member
 

Human activities like burning of fossil fuels has released carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which affects the global climate by increasing the temperature. Climate change affects the ecosystem, biodiversity and finally, the health sector. Drought, floods, famine and failure of monsoon are challenges leading to violence, conflict, mental illness, homelessness, forced migration, malnutrition, water-borne diseases, vector-borne diseases and heat related illness. 

 

In tropical and subtropical regions, vector-borne diseases, 'the big two' (dengue and malaria) has now been recognized as 'big five' (dengue, malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika) are the effects of climate change. Though these are zoonotic in origin, they are transmitted from person to person by Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. Lyme disease, West Nile virus and EEE virus are also vector-borne. Some vectors are short-lived and the life cycle of others are several years long.

Besides climate change as a factor for vector-borne diseases, socioeconomic factors also contribute to diseases. That is, the manner in which provisions are made at homes to keep the vectors at bay. Another debatable topic is when malaria and dengue are transmitted through human-mosquito-human, climate change is not the only factor for vector-borne disease. Drought may reduce the chances of breeding of vectors, but at the same time, it is different in rural areas where vectors breed in water storage barrels which are left open.

 

Measures to be taken to maintain public health during climate change:

  • Anticipation of possible outcomes of climate change due to high temperature, heat waves, floods, drought and wildfire.
  • Assess the vector, water, food and air-borne diseases.
  • Prepare a review about vulnerable areas and population which are at the risk of being affected.
  • Collect empirical data on occurrence of climate change limits leading to vector-borne diseases, their mode of transmission and the methods to curtail them.
  • Consider factors that are dependent and not dependent on climate that affect vector-borne diseases.
  • Surveillance of diseases.
  • Since it is the burden of healthcare professionals, they can serve as role models to tackle global warming and conscious use of resources.

 

 

Citation

1. Wheeler N, Watts N. Climate Change: From Science to Practice. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2018 Mar;5(1):170-178. doi: 10.1007/s40572-018-0187-y. PMID: 29508312; PMCID: PMC5876341.

2. Ogden NH, Gachon P. Climate change and infectious diseases: What can we expect? Can Commun Dis Rep. 2019 Apr 4;45(4):76-80. doi: 10.14745/ccdr.v45i04a01. PMID: 31285696; PMCID: PMC6587697.

3. Ciesielski T. Climate Change and Public Health. New Solut. 2017 May;27(1):8-11. doi: 10.1177/1048291117691075. Epub 2017 Jan 31. PMID: 28142318.

4. Nikendei C, Bugaj TJ, Nikendei F, Kühl SJ, Kühl M. Klimawandel: Ursachen, Folgen, Lösungsansätze und Implikationen für das Gesundheitswesen [Climate change: Causes, consequences, solutions and public health care implications]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes. 2020 Nov;156-157:59-67. German. doi: 10.1016/j.zefq.2020.07.008. Epub 2020 Aug 25. PMID: 32859556.

5. Ogden NH. Climate change and vector-borne diseases of public health significance. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2017 Oct 16;364(19). doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnx186. PMID: 28957457.

 

 

 
Posted : August 19, 2021 10:57 pm
(@arthana-j)
Posts: 10
Active Member
 

Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner. Humanity's increased use of fossil fuels, deforestation, and increasingly intensive agriculture has led to excessive amounts of greenhouse gases being released into our atmosphere. As a result, the globe is already one degree warmer on average than it was before the industrial revolution.

Anthropogenic climate change is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly important due to the effects it has on people's health. Extreme events, such as heat and cold waves have been linked to the increase in mortality from various causes, especially from heart attacks; the alteration of the rainy and drought periods are a determinant of various infectious diseases; air pollution from emissions derived from the use of fossil fuels has been associated with a reduction of 2.9 years in world life expectancy.

The increased climate instability has contributed to the emergence of infections carried by mosquitoes like dengue, chikungunya, and zika. While infection with the zika virus is not new, the recent epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil and other countries in South America resulting from the infection of pregnant women with the zika virus raises a number of serious public health concerns. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include some of the most widespread worldwide illnesses such as malaria and viral diseases. Tick-borne diseases have increased in the past years in cold regions because rising temperatures accelerate the cycle of development, the production of eggs, and the density and distribution of the tick population.

The effects of rising temperature due to global warming include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients. Direct exposure to natural disasters has also an impact on mental health and a link has even been established between climate and civil violence.

Over time, climate change can reduce agricultural resources through reduced availability of water, alterations and shrinking arable land, increased pollution, accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain, and creation of habitats suitable to the transmission of human and animal pathogens. People living in low-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Climate change scenarios include a change in the distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extreme events. After floods, increased cases of leptospirosis, campylobacter infections, and cryptosporidiosis are reported. Global warming affects water heating, rising the transmission of water-borne pathogens.

Options to reduce the consequences of climate change generally fall into four broad categories:

1) mitigation—efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

2) adaptation—increasing society’s capacity to cope with changes in climate

3) geoengineering or Earth manipulation—additional, deliberate intervention in the Earth system that tries to counteract some of the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions

4) pursuit of additional knowledge—efforts to understand more about the climate system, our impact on it, the consequences, or the response options themselves. 

The road towards lessening the impact of climate change includes daily decisions within our reach – like driving and flying less, switching to a ‘green’ energy provider and changing what we eat and buy.

Citation:

Asad H, Carpenter DO. Effects of climate change on the spread of zika virus: a public health threat. Rev Environ Health. 2018 Mar 28;33(1):31-42. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2017-0042. PMID: 29500926.
 
 
Álvarez-Miño L, Taboada-Montoya R. Efectos del cambio climático en la Salud Pública, 2015-2020. Una revisión sistemática [Effects of climate change on Public Health 2015-2020. A systematic review.]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2021 Mar 17;95:e202103042. Spanish. PMID: 33729215.
 
 
Rossati A. Global Warming and Its Health Impact. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jan;8(1):7-20. doi: 10.15171/ijoem.2017.963. PMID: 28051192; PMCID: PMC6679631.
 
Posted : August 20, 2021 11:52 am
(@manju)
Posts: 4
New Member
 

There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. A public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

citation: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2253589/

 
Posted : August 21, 2021 4:19 pm
(@kaviya_or)
Posts: 3
New Member
 

PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVES ON CLIMATE CHANGE

There are clear analogies in the approach to climate change. Primary prevention corresponds to mitigation—efforts to slow, stabilize, or reverse climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Secondary and tertiary prevention corresponds to adaptation—efforts to anticipate and prepare for the effects of climate change, and thereby to reduce the associated health burden. Mitigation efforts will occur mainly in sectors other than health, such as energy, transportation, and architecture (although the health sciences can contribute useful information regarding the choice of safe, healthful technologies). Adaptation efforts, on the other hand, correspond closely to conventional medical and public health practices.

 

This set of practices is collectively known as public health preparedness. Preparedness efforts have assumed a central role in public health in recent years. The threat of terrorist attacks, especially since September 11, 2001; the emergence of new infectious diseases and the reemergence of old ones (including the possibility of pandemics such as avian influenza); and the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes and hurricanes have all compelled health professionals to study, anticipate, and prepare for such eventualities. Public health preparedness for the predicted effects of climate change is consistent with this approach.

 

Using techniques such as health impact assessment they can provide data to support decisionmaking and in some cases recommend specific actions to protect public health.

 

Cobenefits provide another important framework for public health action on climate change. Steps that address climate change frequently yield other health benefits, both direct and indirect. For example, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from power plants can also improve regional air quality, with direct benefits for respiratory and cardiovascular health.55–57 Reducing vehicle miles traveled by encouraging walking, bicycling, and transit use not only lowers motor vehicle contributions to climate change, it also promotes physical activity, an important solution to the obesity epidemic.58,59 Steps that reduce social isolation not only improve overall health60 but also reduce vulnerability to heat waves.61,62 A broad public health approach that fully accounts for health benefits may provide important evidence-based support for climate change strategies.

 

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE

 

As climate change has become a certainty, so has the need for public health action to anticipate, manage, and ameliorate the health burdens it will impose. 

 

In developing and implementing services to address climate change, public health professionals will need to confront several practical realities. First, the effects of climate change will vary considerably by region. Second, they will vary by population group; not all people are equally susceptible. Third, these effects are highly complex, and planning and action will need to be multidimensional.

 

CONCLUSION:

Addressing these occurrences is a pressing challenge for public health. Although the scope and complexity of the challenge are unprecedented, the conceptual framework for responding draws on long-standing public health thinking. An effective public health response to climate change is essential to preventing injuries and illnesses, enhancing public health preparedness, and reducing risk. Science-based decisionmaking, informed by public health ethics, will help manage uncertainty and optimize health, environmental, and economic outcomes. The Essential Services of Public Health serve as a useful framework for planning and implementing a public health response.

Reference:

Howard Frumkin, Jeremy Hess, George Luber, Josephine Malilay, Michael McGeehin

American journal of public health 98 (3), 435-445, 2008

 
Posted : August 21, 2021 4:25 pm
(@sam-rajadurai-g)
Posts: 3
New Member
 

Impact of climate change in public health

1- Climate change strikes at the very core of health systems whose mission is to keep people healthy. They are also affected financially and structurally by the rising frequency of extreme weather events, and they are major contributors to carbon emissions. Even distant climate events can impact them.

Consider what happened when Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico in 2017. The storm killed         people and knocked out power. It also disrupted supply chains. Suddenly, across the United States, doctors and patients faced shortages of critical intravenous fluids and medications because Puerto Rico manufactures IV bags for the rest of the country, and the plants were severely damaged in the storm. For months, nurses had to resort to standing at the patient bedside slowly injecting medications by syringe instead of letting the medication drip in from an IV bag.

2- Climate change also cause loss of seasonal crops which causes serious malnutrition in remote area of country where access to medical facilities is most difficult,

It also play a significant role in spreading of diseases like BIRD FLU , EBOLA which affectes health of a nation and so it’s growth

3- Stanford biologist Erin Mordecai and her colleagues have made startling forecasts of how climate change will alter where mosquito species are most comfortable and how quickly they spread disease, shifting the burden of disease around the world. A major takeaway: wealthy, developed countries such as the United States are not immune.

“It’s coming for you,” Mordecai said. “If the climate is becoming more optimal for transmission, it’s going to become harder and harder to do mosquito control.”

4- Many Philanthropist like Elon Musk tries to make earth greener and sustainable by encouraging people to come up with innovative ideas to capture Carbon which plays a significant role in climate change by offering a prize  amount of $100Million. Still the offer remains unclaimed!!

But the solution to the cause cannot be solved by a single innovation in fact it has to be solved by each and everyone of us. Yes the solution is so simple such as planting trees and preventing deforestation of forest like Amazon!!

5- Great climate activist like Greta Thunberg inspire young generation to implement climate act on parliaments of the world.

REFERENCES:

1- //hbr.org/2019/09/how-health-systems-are-meeting-the-challenge-of-climate-change


3- //earth.stanford.edu/news/how-does-climate-change-affect-disease#gs.8wzm2r

4- //www.space.com/amp/elon-musk-carbon-removal-x-prize

 
Posted : August 21, 2021 11:28 pm
(@kamalpreet)
Posts: 69
Estimable Member
 

Climate change has both direct and indirect effects with short and long terms effect. Extreme heat, water disasters, droughts, wildfires. Environmental factors can also cause congenital defects, impair neurodevelopment, even trigger endogenous mental disorders, and arouse psychosomatic and neurological disorders. This study evaluated the effects of climate change on mental health and found strong evidence that climate change impacts mental health

 read here: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00074/full

 
Posted : August 28, 2021 3:05 pm
(@ashruti-bhatt)
Posts: 47
Trusted Member
 

In the research paper, "Climate change and human health: what are the research trends? A scoping review protocol" a detailed search strategy is be used to search the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria in order to capture the most relevant literature in the time frame chosen. Data is extracted, categorized and coded to allow for statistical analysis of the results. 

Reference

//bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/12/e012022

 
Posted : September 11, 2021 11:26 am
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